Welcome to your one-stop guide on understanding the distinctions within the real estate world! Whether you’re a young family venturing into the property market, a recent graduate eager to kickstart a career in real estate, a retiree deliberating your next move, a remote worker seeking a change of scenery, or someone just keen to differentiate between the myriad of titles in the property world, you’ve come to the right place. The roles of real estate professionals can often be muddled, especially when it comes to the difference between real estate agent and broker.

Did you know that each role within the real estate industry carries its unique responsibilities, training requirements, and opportunities? Or that the path from an agent to a broker is paved with intricate nuances and potential for growth? As we embark on this enlightening journey, you’ll be given an all-access pass to the fascinating world of property dealings.

In this guide, we’ll be taking a deep dive into:

  • The core roles of a Real Estate Agent and a Real Estate Broker
  • The responsibilities that set a Listing Agent apart from a Buyer’s Agent
  • Unraveling the complex web of Real Estate Commissions and the significance of the MLS (Multiple Listing Service)
  • The ethical underpinnings of Fiduciary Duties and the importance of the National Association of Realtors (NAR)
  • And so much more – from property inspections to understanding the dynamics of a Brokerage and how the Real Estate Market functions

By the end of this comprehensive guide, you’ll have a crystal-clear understanding of the various roles, duties, and opportunities that lie in the dynamic world of real estate. You’ll also discover practical insights, personal anecdotes, and actionable advice to guide your real estate decisions, whether they are career-focused or investment-related.

So, let’s jump right in and demystify the difference between real estate agent and broker.

The Basics of Real Estate Roles

As we delve deeper into the world of real estate, it’s crucial to start with the basics. Just as in any profession, the roles in real estate have been carved out based on distinct responsibilities, training, and expertise. Let’s break down these roles, primarily focusing on the Real Estate Agent and the Real Estate Broker.

Definitions: Real Estate Agent vs. Real Estate Broker

A Real Estate Agent is a licensed professional who represents buyers or sellers in real estate transactions. They are typically the first point of contact for anyone looking to buy or sell a property. Here are some characteristics of an agent:

  • Must complete a set number of hours in Real Estate Training and pass a Real Estate Exam
  • Works under a Real Estate Broker or a Brokerage
  • Facilitates property showings, negotiations, and property closings
  • Often specializes as either a Listing Agent (represents sellers) or a Buyer’s Agent (represents buyers)

On the other hand, a Real Estate Broker is a step above an agent in terms of expertise and responsibilities. Brokers can work independently or employ agents to work under them. Distinguishing features of brokers include:

  • Completed additional Real Estate Education beyond the agent level and cleared a separate broker’s exam
  • Has the authority to open their own Real Estate Firms and hire agents
  • Handles more complex tasks, including property management and overseeing multiple property deals
  • Possesses a deeper understanding of Real Estate Contracts and negotiations

How Each Role Contributes to the Real Estate Industry

The real estate industry, vast and intricate, relies on the synergy of its professionals. Both agents and brokers play pivotal roles in this ecosystem.

Real Estate Agents, being the frontline warriors, help in:

  • Understanding clients’ needs and preferences, making the property search more efficient
  • Guiding clients through the intricate maze of property Listing Agreements, Property Disclosures, and Home Inspections
  • Providing invaluable Negotiation Skills to get the best deal for their clients

Real Estate Brokers, as the seasoned strategists, are instrumental in:

  • Ensuring all transactions meet legal and ethical standards
  • Guiding and mentoring their agents, setting the tone for the entire Brokerage
  • Exploring and capitalizing on Real Estate Trends, ensuring their firm remains competitive

In summary, while agents are the face of most real estate transactions, brokers are the backbone, ensuring everything runs smoothly and professionally. Their combined efforts create a seamless property-buying or selling experience for clients, driving the industry forward.

Key Distinctions Between Agents and Brokers

The realm of real estate, filled with its intricate processes and terminologies, can seem complex. While real estate agents and brokers both play vital roles in the industry, there are clear distinctions between them. Let’s unravel these differences across licensing, responsibilities, and financials.

Licensing and Educational Requirements

The Journey to Becoming an Agent

Embarking on a Real Estate Career as an agent requires:

  • A specific number of hours dedicated to Real Estate Education, varying by state
  • Clearing the Real Estate Exam, testing the aspirant’s knowledge on property laws, ethics, and sales
  • A continuous commitment to Continuing Education to stay updated with industry shifts

The Added Steps to Becoming a Broker

For agents aspiring to become brokers, there’s a heightened bar:

  • Accumulation of experience, typically requiring several years of active practice as an agent
  • Completion of additional advanced Real Estate Courses specifically designed for brokers
  • Passing the rigorous broker’s licensing exam, which delves deeper into property laws, brokerage management, and investment strategies

Professional Responsibilities

Day-to-Day Tasks of an Agent

An agent’s life revolves around:

  • Finding and listing properties on the MLS (Multiple Listing Service)
  • Conducting property showings for prospective buyers or renters
  • Negotiating offers, ensuring clients’ interests are well-represented
  • Staying abreast of Real Estate Trends and market fluctuations

Managerial and Supervisory Tasks of a Broker

Brokers wear many hats, including:

  • Overseeing agents within their Brokerage, ensuring they adhere to laws and ethical standards
  • Handling escalated concerns, disputes, or more complex transactions
  • Managing the business side, from recruitment to training to marketing strategies
  • Engaging in Property Management, especially if their firm offers such services

Financial Aspects

Commission Splits and Structures for Agents

Most agents earn through commissions:

  • Typically, commission splits are defined between the agent and their overseeing broker. For instance, a 70/30 split means the agent gets 70% of the commission, while the broker receives 30%.
  • Commissions are earned once a property sale is completed, and it’s usually a percentage of the property’s sale price.
  • Agents can also earn through Referral Fees if they refer clients to other agents or brokers, especially if it’s outside their operational area.

How Brokers Earn and Manage Revenue

Brokers have diverse revenue streams:

  • They earn a share of commissions from each transaction closed by agents under their umbrella.
  • They may collect desk fees or monthly fees from agents as part of the affiliation with the brokerage.
  • Income from property management services, consultation services, or handling premium property deals.
  • Exploring avenues like real estate investment, partnerships, or sponsorship deals.

In essence, while both agents and brokers are indispensable in the real estate machinery, they operate at different capacities, with varied responsibilities, educational pathways, and financial structures. Recognizing these distinctions helps in setting realistic expectations and facilitates smoother transactions in the real estate arena.

The Evolution from Agent to Broker

In the dynamic world of real estate, many agents ponder the transition to becoming a broker. This evolution is more than just a title change—it’s a step towards greater responsibility, autonomy, and potential rewards. But, as with all career progressions, it comes with its unique set of challenges.

Reasons Agents Transition to Broker Roles

The motivations driving agents to make the leap are varied:

  • Personal Growth: For many, it’s a natural progression in their Real Estate Career, showcasing their accumulated knowledge and expertise.
  • Increased Earnings: With a bigger slice of the commission pie and diversified revenue streams, the financial lure is undeniable.
  • Entrepreneurial Spirit: Those with a business mindset see it as an opportunity to establish their own Brokerage or Real Estate Firm.
  • Leadership Ambitions: Agents who envision themselves leading, mentoring, and setting the tone for a team often gravitate towards a broker role.

The Potential Benefits: Earning Potential, Autonomy, and Prestige

The role of a broker is undoubtedly filled with perks:

  • Earning Potential: Brokers have the advantage of earning from each deal closed by their agents. Add to that potential profits from property management, consultations, and other premium services.
  • Autonomy: Owning a Brokerage means having the liberty to set its direction, ethos, and operational style. Brokers have the autonomy to create a business that mirrors their values and vision.
  • Prestige: With the title comes a certain level of prestige and recognition within the Real Estate Network, strengthening trust and credibility with clients.

The Challenges: Increased Liability, Managerial Tasks, and Operational Costs

Yet, the journey to brokerage isn’t without hurdles:

  • Increased Liability: Brokers often bear the brunt of legal responsibilities. From ensuring Property Disclosures are accurate to handling disputes, the buck usually stops with them.
  • Managerial Tasks: Leading a team entails recruitment, training, conflict resolution, and sometimes even playing the role of a counselor during challenging market times.
  • Operational Costs: Running a brokerage comes with overheads like office rent, marketing expenses, licensing fees, and more. Ensuring profitability requires astute financial management.

To conclude, the transition from agent to broker is a bold and rewarding move, painting a canvas of immense potential but also dotted with challenges. It’s a decision requiring introspection, market understanding, and, above all, a clear vision of one’s career trajectory in the real estate labyrinth.

Examining The Financial Landscape

The world of real estate, while promising huge financial rewards, often mystifies many, especially when it comes to how agents and brokers make their earnings. Whether you’re a recent graduate mulling over a career in real estate or a seasoned professional considering the leap from agent to broker, understanding the financial intricacies is crucial. In this section, we’ll delve deep into the earning mechanisms and debunk some prevalent myths about real estate incomes.

How Agents and Brokers Earn

Real estate professionals primarily earn through commissions, but the structure can vary based on the role:

  • Real Estate Agents: They typically work under a broker and earn a commission for each property they help sell or buy. The actual percentage varies depending on the Brokerage, market conditions, and the agreement between the agent and broker.
  • Real Estate Brokers: Brokers can earn in multiple ways. They might take a portion of the commissions earned by the agents working under them. If they’re practicing as agents themselves, they get the full commission. Additionally, they can profit from property management, consulting services, and other related real estate activities.

Common Myths About Real Estate Incomes Debunked

Real estate earnings often get exaggerated, leading to numerous misconceptions. Here are some of the most common myths debunked:

  • Every Agent is a Millionaire: While there are successful agents raking in substantial amounts, many work tirelessly for modest incomes. Remember, agents share their commission with the Brokerage, cover their own marketing costs, and sometimes face stretches with no sales.
  • Brokers Earn Effortlessly: The assumption that brokers simply sit back and collect money is flawed. They bear the operational costs, shoulder increased liabilities, and continuously strive to keep their team motivated and efficient.
  • Higher Property Prices Mean Higher Incomes: While selling luxury properties can mean bigger commissions, these deals often require more extensive marketing, longer selling times, and superior negotiation skills.
  • Real Estate is a Quick Way to Riches: Success in real estate is the culmination of networking, market understanding, continual learning, and often, years of groundwork. Instant wealth is more of an exception than the rule.

In essence, while the real estate arena does promise lucrative returns, it demands dedication, acumen, and resilience. It’s a profession where financial success is intricately linked with market savviness, client relationships, and the ability to adapt and evolve.

Roles Beyond Buying and Selling

Real estate, while often associated with buying and selling homes, offers a myriad of roles and specializations. From managing vast properties to delving deep into commercial terrains, and even providing specialized consultancy services, the industry is vast and varied. Whether you’re a remote worker considering investing in real estate or a retiree pondering property management, understanding these diverse roles can help in informed decision-making.

Property Management: Who Usually Handles It?

Property management focuses on the oversight, control, and operation of real estate. This role involves tasks like collecting rents, handling maintenance issues, and dealing with tenants. So, who’s up for this job?

  • Real Estate Brokers: Many brokers, especially those owning larger Brokerages, might offer property management as an additional service. This provides them with a steady income, especially during market downturns.
  • Specialized Property Managers: There are professionals who exclusively specialize in property management. Their expertise spans handling tenant disputes to ensuring properties are in tip-top shape.
  • Real Estate Firms: Bigger real estate conglomerates often have dedicated departments for property management, especially for commercial properties or large residential complexes.

Commercial vs. Residential Real Estate: Specializations and Nuances

While both sectors involve properties, the differences between commercial and residential real estate are stark:

  • Nature of Transactions: Commercial deals, involving offices or retail spaces, are usually more intricate than residential ones. Factors like foot traffic for retailers or connectivity for offices play crucial roles.
  • Duration of Transactions: Residential properties tend to move faster in the market, whereas commercial deals, given their complexity, often take longer.
  • Earnings: While commercial deals might take longer, the commissions are generally higher due to the sheer size and value of transactions.
  • Client Relationships: In residential real estate, the connection is often emotional as clients look for homes. In commercial, it’s primarily business-driven.

Real Estate Consulting: A Growing Field

As the Real Estate Market evolves, there’s a surge in the demand for expert advice, leading to the growth of real estate consulting. Professionals in this field:

  • Offer Expertise: Be it for investments, property development, or market analysis, consultants provide data-driven insights.
  • Specialized Services: From Real Estate Trends forecasting to property valuation or feasibility studies, their offerings are vast and varied.
  • Bridge Knowledge Gaps: Especially beneficial for newcomers, consultants provide a roadmap, steering clients away from common pitfalls.

Concluding, the realm of real estate extends far beyond the traditional buy-sell paradigm. With myriad roles and specializations, it offers opportunities galore for those keen to explore, innovate, and thrive.

Brokers: Not Just Supervisors

Often, when we think of real estate brokers, an image of a supervisor overseeing agents comes to mind. However, the world of brokering is far more multifaceted. Brokers are not just managerial entities; they are pillars that uphold the values, shape the culture, and direct the trajectory of a real estate firm. They can be mentors, entrepreneurs, leaders, and much more. Let’s delve into the varied roles of brokers and see how they influence the very fabric of a real estate agency.

Different Types of Brokers: Broker-Owners, Associate Brokers, and Managing Brokers

Within the umbrella of “broker”, there are several specializations. Each type brings a unique set of responsibilities and contributions to a real estate firm:

  • Broker-Owners: These are entrepreneurs at heart. They own their real estate businesses and have the final say in company operations. They’re responsible for the overall success, financial health, and reputation of their firm.
  • Associate Brokers: They’re licensed brokers but often choose to work under the umbrella of a broker-owner or managing broker. While they have the qualifications of a broker, they may not take on the responsibilities of running an agency.
  • Managing Brokers: As the title suggests, these brokers are in managerial positions, overseeing day-to-day operations of the agency, training agents, and ensuring regulatory compliance. Their role is pivotal in shaping the culture and ensuring the smooth functioning of the firm.

How Brokers Can Shape the Culture of a Real Estate Firm

The influence of a broker extends beyond just management. They have the capability to mold the ethos and environment of the entire firm:

  • Setting Ethical Standards: Brokers often set the tone for how business is conducted. By adhering to high ethical standards and emphasizing the importance of Ethics in Real Estate, they create a culture of trust and integrity.
  • Mentorship and Training: A broker’s guidance can make or break an agent’s career. Through comprehensive Real Estate Training and one-on-one mentorship, they can nurture agents, helping them grow and succeed.
  • Encouraging Collaboration: By fostering a collaborative environment, brokers ensure that agents work together, share knowledge, and pool resources. This can be pivotal in clinching deals and serving clients better.
  • Staying Abreast of Trends: Brokers, by keeping themselves updated on the latest Real Estate Trends and integrating them into the firm’s practices, ensure that the firm remains relevant and competitive.

To sum it up, brokers are the beating heart of a real estate firm. Their roles, responsibilities, and influence are vast and varied, ensuring that the firm doesn’t just survive but thrives in the dynamic real estate landscape.

The Role of Ethics and Integrity in Real Estate

The real estate industry, with its vast transactions and life-altering decisions, is intrinsically tied to principles of ethics and integrity. When people are making one of the largest financial decisions of their lives, such as buying a home, they need to trust the professionals guiding them through the process. This is where ethics and integrity become paramount. In this section, we’ll dive deep into the very soul of the real estate industry: its ethical framework.

The Fiduciary Duty Explained

At the heart of the relationship between a real estate professional and their client lies the concept of a ‘fiduciary duty’. This duty obligates agents and brokers to act in the best interests of their clients, placing client needs above their own:

  • Loyalty: An agent must act in the best interest of their client, avoiding conflicts of interest.
  • Confidentiality: Personal information of clients must be kept private unless explicitly authorized for disclosure.
  • Full Disclosure: Agents are obligated to inform clients of all pertinent information about a property or transaction.
  • Obedience: As long as it’s legal and ethical, an agent must obey the instructions of their client.
  • Reasonable Care: Agents are expected to exercise competence, diligence, and skill in all tasks.
  • Accounting: All client funds, such as earnest money or deposits, must be tracked and handled with utmost transparency.

National Association of Realtors (NAR) and its Code of Ethics

The National Association of Realtors (NAR) is a major force advocating for ethical conduct in the real estate sector. Established over a century ago, NAR’s Code of Ethics serves as a beacon, guiding its members in their professional endeavors:

  • Duties to Clients and Customers: Articles 1-9 ensure that clients are represented with utmost integrity and professionalism.
  • Duties to the Public: Articles 10-14 emphasize truthfulness in advertising, non-discrimination, and other public responsibilities.
  • Duties to Realtors: Articles 15-17 uphold the respectful and honest treatment of peers in the real estate industry.

When Ethics in Real Estate Made Headlines

Ethical lapses in real estate not only affect individual clients but can have broader implications, making national or even global news. Here are a few case studies that underscore the importance of ethics in this sector:

  1. The Dual Agency Controversy: An agent representing both the buyer and seller in a deal without clear disclosure led to conflicts of interest, eventually resulting in lawsuits and calls for clearer regulations on Dual Agency.
  2. Misrepresentation of Property Conditions: A broker who failed to disclose known structural issues in a home faced legal repercussions and a tarnished reputation after the buyers faced significant repair costs post-purchase.
  3. Overestimation of Property Values: In an effort to win listings, an agent inflated property values, leading to properties that sat on the market for extended periods and sold below their listed prices. The story was highlighted as a cautionary tale in several real estate publications.

In conclusion, ethics and integrity are more than just buzzwords in the real estate industry. They’re foundational principles that ensure trust, transparency, and fairness. By understanding and adhering to these principles, real estate professionals can foster long-lasting relationships and uphold the noble reputation of their industry.

Emerging Trends: The Future of Real Estate Professions

As with many industries, the real estate sector is experiencing a wave of transformations. From technological advancements to changing market dynamics, the roles of agents and brokers are continuously evolving. This section will unpack these emerging trends and speculate on what the future holds for real estate professionals.

Tech’s Impact: How Modern Tools Are Changing the Agent-Broker Dynamic

The dawn of technology has brought about tools and platforms that are reshaping the real estate landscape. Let’s dive into how these innovations are impacting the relationship between agents and brokers:

  • Virtual Tours and Augmented Reality: Agents now harness AR tools and 3D virtual tours, allowing prospective buyers to experience properties remotely, thereby widening the reach beyond geographical limitations.
  • AI-Powered Property Analysis: Predictive analytics and AI-driven tools offer brokers insights into market trends, enabling them to make more informed decisions for their brokerage and advise their agents strategically.
  • Blockchain and Smart Contracts: The introduction of decentralized technology could streamline property transactions, reducing the need for intermediaries and possibly reshaping the role of brokers in the transaction process.
  • CRM Systems and Automation: Advanced Customer Relationship Management tools allow agents to nurture leads efficiently, while brokers can monitor performance and analyze data more effectively.

Market Shifts and Their Implications for Both Roles

Changes in the real estate market, driven by socio-economic factors, demographics, and even global events, have profound implications for both agents and brokers. Here’s a look at some of the shifts and their impact:

  • Urban to Suburban Migration: As remote work becomes more commonplace, many are seeking properties in suburban or rural areas, compelling agents to expand their area of expertise and brokers to diversify their portfolio.
  • Increased Emphasis on Sustainable Housing: With rising awareness of environmental concerns, both agents and brokers are now emphasizing green housing options and sustainable real estate practices.
  • Economic Uncertainties: Fluctuating economic conditions, such as recessions or global events like pandemics, can drastically affect property values and demand. Agents need to be adept at navigating these uncertain waters, while brokers must ensure their firms remain resilient.
  • Growth of Co-living and Co-working Spaces: The shared economy’s influence on real estate means agents and brokers need to be familiar with these new property types and understand their unique selling points and challenges.

In summation, the real estate industry is on the cusp of significant change, driven by technological innovations and shifting market dynamics. As agents and brokers adapt to these transformations, those who stay ahead of the curve, embrace innovations, and understand emerging market nuances will undoubtedly thrive in the evolving landscape.

Navigating the Real Estate Career Ladder

Embarking on a real estate career is both exciting and daunting. From the first sale as a novice agent to potentially running your own brokerage, the journey is filled with growth opportunities and challenges. Here’s a roadmap to navigate the dynamic world of real estate, ensuring both immediate and long-term success.

Steps for Success as a New Agent

Starting as a fresh-faced agent in the real estate world can be overwhelming. Here are steps to set you on the path to success:

  • Build a Strong Foundation: Invest time in understanding the local real estate market, property values, and emerging trends.
  • Client-First Approach: Always prioritize the needs and preferences of your clients, ensuring they feel valued throughout the transaction process.
  • Digital Presence: In today’s digital age, having a robust online presence—be it through a personal website, social media, or online listings—is crucial.
  • Continuous Learning: Attend workshops, webinars, and seminars to stay updated with the latest industry knowledge and techniques.

Planning for Long-Term Growth and Transition to Broker

As you gain experience and confidence, you might start contemplating the leap to becoming a broker. Here’s how to prepare:

  • Financial Planning: Understand the financial implications and requirements of starting and running a brokerage.
  • Advanced Certifications: Consider obtaining certifications that add value to your profile and make the transition smoother.
  • Build a Team: Surround yourself with a team of professionals, including legal advisors, financial planners, and experienced agents.
  • Scout Locations: If you’re considering opening a physical office, research areas that align with your target market.

Networking, Mentorship, and Continuing Education: Keys to Sustained Success

Real estate is as much about relationships as it is about properties. Here’s how to foster lasting connections and stay at the top of your game:

  • Networking: Regularly attend industry events, join real estate associations, and engage with peers to build a supportive community.
  • Mentorship: Whether you’re a mentee or a mentor, this relationship can provide invaluable insights, guidance, and support.
  • Continuing Education: The real estate industry is ever-evolving. Enroll in courses, attend conferences, and read industry publications to stay ahead of the curve.

To sum it up, while the real estate journey has its share of challenges, with the right strategies, dedication, and continuous learning, you can climb the career ladder successfully, whether you aim to be a top-performing agent or run a thriving brokerage.

Final Thoughts: A Synthesis of the Real Estate Realm

The world of real estate is vast, intricate, and ever-evolving, offering myriad opportunities for both clients and professionals. As we’ve journeyed through this guide, one thing stands out: the significance of understanding the nuances and roles within the industry.

At the heart of real estate lie two prominent figures: agents and brokers. While they often work hand-in-hand, their responsibilities, education, and professional journey set them apart. An agent typically serves as the direct link to buyers and sellers, guiding them through property transactions. On the other hand, a broker has ascended the ranks with additional training, possessing the credentials to own or manage a brokerage and supervise agents.

For clients, choosing the right real estate professional can be the difference between a seamless transaction and a challenging ordeal. A comprehensive understanding of the roles of agents and brokers ensures clients make informed choices tailored to their needs. Aspiring real estate professionals, too, benefit immensely from grasping these distinctions, enabling them to chart a clear career path based on their goals and aspirations.

Real estate isn’t static. With emerging market trends, technological advancements, and shifts in consumer behavior, the landscape is continuously changing. Both agents and brokers, new and seasoned, must commit to lifelong learning to stay relevant, provide the best services, and achieve sustained success.

In conclusion, whether you’re a young family searching for your first home, a retiree looking for a peaceful abode, a recent graduate stepping into the real estate industry, or a seasoned professional aiming to grow, knowledge is your compass. Embrace the quest for information, lean into the intricacies of the field, and chart your journey in the enthralling world of real estate with confidence.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Can a real estate agent work independently?
No, a real estate agent typically cannot work independently. They must work under a broker or a brokerage firm. Only brokers can operate independently or own their brokerage firms.

What’s the difference between a Realtor and a real estate agent?
While all Realtors are real estate agents, not all real estate agents are Realtors. A Realtor is a member of the National Association of Realtors (NAR) and adheres to its Code of Ethics, whereas a real estate agent is a generic term for someone licensed to facilitate property transactions.

Can a broker represent both the buyer and the seller in a transaction?
Yes, when a broker represents both the buyer and seller in a single transaction, it’s known as “dual agency.” However, it’s crucial that both parties are informed and give their consent to this arrangement, and the practice is not legal in all states.

How do real estate agents and brokers get paid if property listings are free?
While property listings on platforms might be free for buyers and sellers to view, real estate agents and brokers typically earn through commissions, which are percentages of the property’s selling price. These commissions are agreed upon in contracts when the property is listed.

Why would an agent choose not to become a broker?
While becoming a broker can come with increased earnings and autonomy, it also brings additional responsibilities, such as managing a brokerage, overseeing agents, and handling operational costs. Not all agents may wish to take on these additional tasks or may prefer to focus solely on property transactions.

How often do real estate professionals need to renew their licenses?
The frequency of license renewal varies by state. Most states require real estate professionals to renew their licenses every two to four years, and this often involves completing continuing education courses.

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